The origin of the Earth, in pictures (345 photos). Part-5.
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08. Magma intrusion into the sedimentary cover of the DP during the transformation of the planet.
During the destruction of the Ancient Planet, the continental crust underwent deformations. A large number of cracks formed. Through the cracks from the depths magma came out. Has frozen in cracks or has spread on a surface of a sedimentary cover. The surface of all terrestrial continents is flooded with lava.
1. Lava outpourings began to occur before the destruction of the DP.
2. The most significant outpouring of lava occurred in the process of destruction of DP.
3. Minor outpourings of lava occur in our time.
Terms of geology.
Photo-256. Magma. Lava. Concepts.
Magma fills the crack and freezes.
Photo-257. Types of intrusion of magma. Scheme-1.
"Intrusion (intrusive, intrusive massif) is a geological body composed of magmatic rocks crystallized in the depths of the earth's crust."
Photo-258. Intrusive magmatism in the sedimentary cover of the DP. Scheme-2.
Photo-259. Intrusive magmatism in the sedimentary cover of the DP. Scheme-3.
Volcanic "Nekk" and "Dyke".
"Dyke is an intrusive body of plate-shaped form. Dykes are formed in hypabyssal and subvolcanic conditions when magma is introduced through faults and cracks. As a result of the action of exogenous processes, the sedimentary hosts are destroyed faster than the dikes in them, because of which, in the relief, the latter resemble destroyed walls (name from English "dike", "dyke" - barrier, stone wall). "
Photo-260. Magmatic dike and volcanic nekk.
Photo-261. Magmatic dike and volcanic nekk. Overall plan.
Photo-262. Magmatic dike and volcanic nekk. Close-up.
Magmatic Traps of the Ancient Planet.
Large outpourings of lava on the surface of the continental slab occurred during the existence of the Ancient Planet. Tidal deformations of the crust led to large-scale outpourings of fresh lava on the granite crust. These effusions under the sedimentary cover.
Before the destruction of the Ancient Planet, there was a long period when the continental crust of the DP was subjected to strong tidal deformations. Perhaps, the planet briefly approached the gas giant. Then she retired. And so several times. These outpourings of lava are noticeable on the surface of the Earth above the sedimentary cover - basalt traps.
The last rapprochement with the gas giant became fatal, the planet tore it up with a strong gravitational field. In the process of destruction of the planet, the crust undergoes severe deformation. Magma is extruded into numerous cracks, flooding the vast expanses of the sedimentary cover of biogenic origin. Limestone is on land and ceases to form. The "Cretaceous period" breaks off.
Multiple outpourings of lava, layers. Basalt erosion occurs in the form of steps - traps.
Photo-263. India. Dekan traps east of Mumbai.
Photo-264. The characteristic relief of the Trapp provinces. The Snake River, Washington, USA.
Photo-265. Africa magmatic trap. Twelve layers of lava outpouring. Erosion. ( wikimapia )
Greenland - a piece of the continental plate, which was strongly deformed during the destruction of the DP. A large amount of lava has been poured out onto the surface of the sedimentary cover.
Photo-266. East Greenland, area Watkins Bjerge. Mount Mont Forel. Magmatic trap. Erosion. ( wikimapia )
Photo-267. Greenland. The Watkins Mountains. Magmatic trap. Erosion.
Photo-268. Greenland. Magmatic trap. Erosion.
Different sources indicate different magmatic traps. I'll give you some maps.
Photo-269. Magmatic Traps of the Ancient Planet.
Photo-270. Magmatic Traps of the Ancient Planet.
I will dwell on several traps.
Magmatic Trap # 14 "Afro-Arabian". It can be safely asserted that he appeared in the process of destroying the DP and is the same age as the Earth. Hence, this trap is as old as the Earth, that is, from 15 to 4 million years. All traps, except the 15th - older. Hence, all the listed outpourings of lava on the surface of the lithosphere were before the appearance of the Earth or at the time of its appearance.
Photo-271. Magmatic Trap # 14 Afro-Arabian (in the center of the frame). His image in the picture is Photo-079. East African rift system.
Magmatic Trap # 10 "Siberian Trap". (Putorana Plateau, Anabar Plateau). Dating in the table - 252 million years. In reality, basalt was poured onto limestone. Hence, this trap is as old as the Earth, that is, from 15 to 4 million years.
Photo-272. Putorana Plateau, basaltic lava over limestone. 410 km × 470 km. The altitude above sea level is up to 1701 m. In the north it sharply breaks by a ledge of 700 meters. Perhaps the outpouring of the lava is stopped by a glacier. Strong erosion of basalt. ( wikimapia )
Photo-273. Putorana Plateau. Table mountains are a flat surface of a basalt trap, which was before erosion began. Table mountains are few. The degree of erosion of the plateau is high. ( wikimapia )
Photo-274. Table mountains. Putorana Plateau. Siberian Traps.
Photo-275. Table mountains. Putorana Plateau. Siberian Traps.
Photo-276. Table mountains. Putorana Plateau. Siberian Traps.
Photo-277. Table mountains. Putorana Plateau. Siberian Traps.
Photo-278. Table mountains. Putorana Plateau. Siberian Traps.
Video illustrations: " Putorana. In search of a dream frame. "
Photo-279. Anabar plateau. Basalt - dark brown at the very top of the hill. A tiny patch of flat pristine basalt lava has survived. Under the basalt, a layer of white limestone (?) Is visible. ( wikimapia )
Photo-280. Anabar plateau. The upper layers: Basalt-Limestone-Basalt-Limestone (?). ( wikimapia )
The layered structure indicates that this basalt trap was formed before the destruction of the Ancient Planet. A new layer of limestone formed over the basaltic lava. Outflows of basalt occurred in the aquatic environment, on the ocean floor. The second version of the interpretation of the facts - the basalt layers inside the limestone is the dolerite sill (to determine the truth, we need our own research of the object or communication with competent people).
Photo-281. Anabar plateau. The Kotui River. Dolerite sill between the layers of limestone, an extent of tens of kilometers.
Photo-282. Anabar plateau. The Kotui River. Basalt lava over white limestone, turned into marble.
Photo-283. Anabar plateau. The Kotui River. Basalt lava over white limestone (the same rock on the other side).
Photo-284. Anabar plateau. The Kotui River. Basalt lava over white limestone.
Photo-285. Anabar plateau. The Kotui River. Limestone. Dolerite dyke. ( source )
Outflows of basalt occurred over the limestone and through its thickness. So, limestone was already during the outpouring of the Siberian trap. According to geochronology, the Siberian traps flowed 252 million years ago, 125 million years earlier than the Cretaceous period began ???
As a result of the outflow of basalt to the surface of limestone, limestone was partially destroyed, releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, the outpouring of lava was followed by a period of global warming, a new blocking of carbon dioxide in limestone - the formation of a new layer of limestone.
Basalt intrusions in sedimentary cover of DP.
Extrusion of magma from the deep layers - intrusion from basalt.
Photo-286. Waterfall Svartifoss 20 meters high, Iceland. Basalt columns.
Photo-287. Taimyr. Basalt columns.
Photo-288. Plateau Anabar. Siberia. Neck from basalts with columnar separation, preserved after erosion of sedimentary rocks that surrounded it.
Photo-289. "Devil's Tower" (Wyoming, USA), intrusion (nekk), preserved after the erosion of the softer sedimentary rocks surrounding it.
Photo-290. The Devil's Tower. The intrusion of basaltic magma into the sedimentary cover of the DP. Basalt columns.
Extrusion of magma into the sedimentary cover during the collision of slabs. Laccoliths.
During the destruction of the DP, significant magma intrusions occurred in the sedimentary cover and outpourings of lava on the surface.
Outpouring of lava on the Iranian plateau.
Photo-291. Iran. The Zagros Mountains. Clash of the plate Africa with Eurasia. ( wikimapia )
Photo-292. Iran. The Zagros Mountains. Round Laccolith ( wikimapia ). The intrusion of magma into the sedimentary cover, which is then destroyed by erosion. The hemisphere in the center is magma, frozen inside the sedimentary cover. Along the perimeter of the canopy of the edge of the sedimentary cover.
Photo-293. Iran. Overgrown. Laccoliths of oval form. ( wikimapia ) The magma intrusion into the sedimentary cover, which is then destroyed by erosion. Rocks along the perimeter of laccoliths - the end part of the destroyed sedimentary cover of the DP.
Photo-294. Iran. Overgrown. Extensive lava flow and a bump above the source of outflow. The size is 20 km × 15 km. ( wikimapia )
On the other side of the crumpled cover of the Iranian plateau:
Photo-295. Turkmenistan. Two laccoliths are elongated. ( wikimapia )
Photo-296. Turkmenistan. Right laccolith, larger plan. Rocks - this is the edge of the broken and elevated sedimentary cover of the DP. ( wikimapia )
Photo-297. Turkmenistan. Rocks - this is the edge of the broken and elevated sedimentary cover of the DP. The plan is even bigger. ( wikimapia )
The same laccoliths are seen in other parts of the Earth in the areas of crushed continental plates.
Lakkolites in other parts of the Earth.
Photo-298. Himalayas and Tibet. General view of the crushed sedimentary cover of the DP during the rounding of the Earth, immediately after the destruction of the DP. ( wikimapia )
Photo-299. Himalayas. Magma intrusion into the sedimentary cover. Laccolith 156 km x 22 km. ( wikimapia )
On the northern border of this laccolith flows the river Brahmaputra, conditionally dividing the plateau into the Himalayas and Tibet.
Erosion of the sedimentary cover in the Himalayas and Tibet is the highest on the planet. Huge masses of water evaporate from the surface of the warm Indian Ocean and are held up by high mountains. The lakolites of Zagros and Tibet are of the same age. The degree of erosion of Tibet laccoliths is so high that this intrusion can hardly be recognized.
Photo-300. China. Magma intrusion into the sedimentary cover. Lakcolite is 51km x 23km. Strong erosion. ( wikimapia )
Photo-301. China. Magma intrusion into the sedimentary cover. The laccolith is 29km x 8km. Strong erosion. ( wikimapia )
Photo-302. Africa. Lakkolit 60km x 8km. ( wikimapia )
Photo-303. North America. Laccolith 2.2 km. Along the perimeter of the laccolith, there is an elevated and fractured sedimentary cover of the DP. ( wikimapia )
Photo-304. North America. The laccolith is 11km x 6km. ( wikimapia )
The outpouring of lava is now.
Tidal deformations of the earth's crust, caused by the gravitation of the Moon and the Sun, are the cause of new outbursts of magma on the surface of the sedimentary cover of the DP and into its thickness.
Unlike the ancient eruptions and eruptions that occurred over the entire area of the broken continental plates, modern eruptions occur at the joints of the continental plates and in the cracks of the slabs.
Photo-305. Map of volcanoes on the Earth's surface.
The product of an eruption of underwater volcanoes (15 km3 / year, now) covers a new basaltic bottom with a kilometer layer of new sedimentary rocks, serving as a heat insulator.
Photo-306. Underwater eruption.
Photo-307. Underwater eruption. Cushion lava.
Lava extrudes onto the surface for a long time, forming lava cones.
Photo-308. The active volcano Karymsky, Kamchatka, Russia.
Photo-309. Kamchatka. Koryakskaya Sopka is an active volcano.
Photo-310. Guatemalan volcano of Fuego.
Photo-311. Shiveluch Volcano.
Photo-312. The Japanese volcano Asama.
Photo-313. Volcano Calbuco Chile.
Photo-314. Ashes from the volcanic eruption.
09. Astronomical facts.
The origin of the Earth, in pictures (345 photos). Part-6.
This is an automatic translation.
Click here to read the publication in the original language.